To make it easier for tipsters to share sensitive information, a growing number of news organizations are launching resources for confidential tips. While there is some overlap between the communication channels each news organization supports, it’s not always clear which channels are the most practical for routine use. This short guide will describe some basics around how to think about security on behalf of your sources before thinking about tools and practices. I’ll also describe common communication channels for accepting sensitive tips and tradeoffs when using each channel. When thinking about tradeoffs, consider which channels are right for you.
First, who is likely to look into your source, and how?
The truth is, most tips and sources are not terribly sensitive. But when there’s a reasonable hint that source confidentiality should be upheld, pause and think carefully about what information you’re publishing so they don’t run into trouble. (You do want them to come back, right?)
Think about who would care about this tip being shared with a news organization and the public (e.g., their employer). What capabilities do they have to look into the tip (e.g., legal, financial)? How likely do you think that it is that anyone will look into it? (Very likely? Not at all?) What are the potential consequences for your source if they are discovered?
Based on the capabilities of the source’s potential investigators and the likely consequences, consider which channels are appropriate for your communications. For example, you are concerned about an organization with few resources to investigate, your sources have a lot of options for communicating with you; anywhere outside of work. If their potential investigator is a large government agency, however, chances are that agency has resources for investigating the tip, and the source needs to be cautious. Encourage them to use the right channels. When the time comes to publish, give them a realistic idea about the risks and tradeoffs of publishing before moving ahead.
Content versus metadata
Much like our messages sent through a postcard, routine communications through email or phone calls are often legible to anyone who gets ahold of them. That may include your internet service provider, telecommunications company, or any government that makes a legal request of those companies. Just as we must write an address on our postcards so the post office will deliver it correctly, our electronic communications inevitably require us to share information about where to deliver a message. This is called metadata — data about who spoke to whom, when, and for how long.
Even if you secure your conversations, remember that both parties are still identifiable through metadata. A network eavesdropper may not be able to read your messages, but they can still see the parties in conversation. In effect, to network eavesdroppers you look like this:
We can’t prevent metadata from being produced, but we can try to minimize it or make it less useful. For example, you can encourage sources to call from a phone that is not clearly linked to them (e.g., at a nearby business). The point isn’t to have no metadata; it’s to have metadata that is less revealing for later analysis.
The first contact problem
It’s easy for sources to “out” themselves with their metadata trail. If a source reached out over a work phone or email, they have already left a juicy metadata trail for their employer. This is sometimes called the “first contact problem,” and there is no quick fix. We need sources to know the appropriate channels before reaching out.
The best we can do is support the appropriate communication channels, and advertise that we’re available to check out tips. Have a page where these channels are clearly organized, and share it with information about the tradeoffs (e.g., see the confidential tips page from the New York Times). Most secure communications channels do not protect against metadata surveillance, so make note of these constraints in your documentation.
Open secure communication channels and know the tradeoffs
Give sources as many ways to reach out as appropriate for your situation, and know the advantages and constraints of each channel.
Many of us already have a professional email address, desk phone, cell phone, or social media accounts (e.g., Twitter, Facebook) to gather information for stories. These are all great channels for less sensitive tips, but what do you do if you need to secure your communications?
Common secure channels
Some common secure communication channels include Signal, WhatsApp, Off-the-record messaging, and PGP for email encryption. Let’s briefly walk through some of the advantages and tradeoffs for each.
- Signal. Signal is a free and open source secure messaging app for iPhone and Android, developed by Open Whisper Systems. Signal supports encrypted messaging and phone calls. Signal’s developers designed the service to retain as little metadata as possible — only the user’s phone number, sign-up time, and the time when the user was last active. It also allows messages to “self-destruct” automatically after a preset amount of time, leaving behind as little information as possible. For help getting started, read Signal for Beginners.
Tradeoffs: While Signal’s servers retain nearly no metadata (only the phone number, sign-up date, and the user’s last sign-in date), the app is also not designed to prevent live metadata surveillance. The users in conversation should not be considered anonymous.
- WhatsApp. With over a billion users on iPhone and Android, WhatsApp is a popular messaging application that uses similar encryption to Signal. It’s easy to use, and with the right settings, can be a decent option for routine communications. WhatsApp can share more types of files than Signal, and can be a great way to send documents.
Tradeoffs: Importantly, some settings must be tweaked in order to maximize the security benefits of the app, and to make it safer for routine use. For example, WhatsApp may be backing up your unencrypted messages to iCloud or Google Drive, and you need to turn backups off. To learn more about how to improve the app’s security, read Upgrading WhatsApp Security.
Like Signal, WhatsApp stores user phone numbers. Note that WhatsApp is owned by Facebook and shares the user’s phone number (which can help Facebook map connections) and user analytics with the social media company. Facebook can also be forced to share its troves of user data in response to a court order or subpoena.
- Off-the-record (OTR) messaging. OTR is a messaging encryption standard. OTR can be installed as a plug-in for messaging clients, such as Pidgin or Adium, typically using an open messaging standard called XMPP. It can help you encrypt communications with sources on a variety of inter-operable messaging clients. Read the Electronic Frontier Foundation’s primer on getting started with OTR for Windows, Mac, and Linux.
Note that OTR allows you to accept messages from anyone using an OTR client, including some anonymity-protecting clients such as Tor Messenger. If your contacts have the know-how, this can be an asset for protecting anonymity.
Tradeoffs: Not everyone is familiar with OTR, and you’re much more likely to receive an OTR message from a savvy user than anyone else. Note that OTR should not be confused with the “off the record” setting in Google Hangouts.
- Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) email encryption. PGP is an encryption standard that is becoming increasingly popular among journalists for securing email. PGP uses public key cryptography, meaning that each user has a “public key” used to scramble messages to other users. The public key can be shared with anyone. Each user also has a corresponding “private key” that is used to unscramble messages, and should never be shared. Users typically post their public key in an accessible place, such as a personal website, byline, or a PGP public keyserver. The Electronic Frontier Foundation has resources for setting up PGP on Windows, Mac, and Linux.
Tradeoffs: PGP is not the best choice for secure communications for a few different reasons. It’s infamously tricky to use, even for security geeks. It’s easy to make a mistake that will compromise your sensitive communications. Most importantly for news organizations, PGP only secures the body of an email, leaving email addresses and the subject line exposed to eavesdroppers. You are likely to get more “return on investment” with simpler channels, such as Signal.
Secure organizational channels
When done properly, physical mail and SecureDrop can both be good ways for sources to avoid giving personally identifiable information. The catch is, your sources have to know what to do.
- Physical mail. Regular old-fashioned mail is a solid way to receive sensitive tips because sources don’t need to give their return address. The U.S. postal service takes images of the exterior of paper mail, so if you want, you can encourage sources to put a return address inside the envelope instead. Physical mail can be a great way to send physical documents as well as electronic media, such as SD cards or small USB devices.
Tradeoffs: The main drawback is that physical mail represents a one-off communication. If you advertise your office address for accepting tips, encourage sources to give you a way to reach them so that you can ask them about any materials they share.
- SecureDrop. SecureDrop is an encrypted submission system that can help news organizations receive documents and exchange messages with sources. SecureDrop uses the Tor anonymity network, which encrypts and bounces web traffic around the globe, making it much more difficult for eavesdroppers to determine the original source of a tip. This is one of the best options available for protecting confidentiality.
SecureDrop requires dedicated equipment and an administrator familiar with the basics of Linux and Bash shell. Learn more about setting up SecureDrop here.
Tradeoffs: With SecureDrop, sources don’t need to provide identifying information unless they choose to do so. The added protection for sources can sometimes present challenges for newsrooms that need to verify the legitimacy of an anonymous leak. Consider (1) verifying their information independently by asking experts, (2) other previous “insiders” (perhaps not present insiders) who might understand the leak, or (3) consider having a conversation with your source about information they can give that would verify their identity without giving information that would be meaningful to their organization. For example, you can ask them to post a nondescript phrase in a tweet — visible to anyone, but only meaningful to you.
While it is possible for individual reporters to have individual SecureDrop pages (e.g., Bart Gellman; Wired.com’s Kevin Poulsen), it takes a fair bit of know-how. For most, having institutional support is ideal.
Pay attention to file metadata
If you’re going to publish files from a source, look out for file metadata. Metadata is information about a file, such as its creator or associated GPS coordinates. For example, the image here contains an enormous amount of associated metadata (See the image page here and click “Show EXIF”).
Consider whether it’s appropriate to publish original documents with their file metadata intact. You can often remove metadata by converting the file into a new format (e.g., by taking a screenshot of a document). It’s fairly easy to scrub unwanted metadata on Windows. For those who feel comfortable with Bash, consider using the Metadata Anonymisation Toolkit.
Your conversations are only as secure as your devices. Be aware of a few different ways your communications can be compromised.
Perhaps it goes without saying, but encryption doesn’t protect you if someone takes control of your unlocked physical devices. If the device you use to decrypt your messages gets infected with malware, your decrypted files are readily available to the remote attacker. And of course, without strong authentication, there’s not much standing between a hacker and your sensitive communications over your email, Twitter, Facebook, or any online account where you chat with sources.
Defend against common attacks to protect your accounts and conversations with sources. One common way that newsroom accounts and devices are hijacked is through “phishing” emails — emails that link to a fake login page, where you’re encouraged to enter your very real login information. Learn more about phishing here. Another common tactic is to encourage reporters to download and launch malicious file attachments that can give a remote attacker access to your device. Though you will inevitably open email links from strangers (it’s part of the job, after all), use caution and learn to identify suspicious looking emails. If you’re feeling unsure of a file attachment in an email, consider whether to open PDFs and Microsoft Office documents, which are especially popular for distributing malware. If you’re okay with sharing a document with Google, consider opening it in Google Docs instead of opening it directly on your computer.
To make it harder for remote attackers to log in and see any communications with sources, use hard-to-guess passwords (ideally generated and stored with a password manager) and use two-factor authentication.
Learn more about how to keep newsroom accounts safe from hijacking.
Consider what’s right for you and your sources
Most newsrooms are overworked, and it’s challenging to find the time to get started with these tools and practices. However, secure tip channels allow sources to come forward with compelling information, especially when they are putting their safety or livelihood at risk for sharing what they know. Secure tip channels also signal to sources that you take their confidentiality seriously. If this is important to your organization, consider which options are appropriate for you and your sources.
This article originally appeared in Source.